You now your getting old when ya haf ta grease your jaw-harps & harmonicas with vaseline

Actually all mouth & finger instruments  ❗️

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Thank goodness I haven’t played reeds in 45yrs ❗️

chap stick on reeds Ick 😝

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I require a ‘Theremin’ Etherwave_Theremin_Kit

‘Somewhere over the rainbow’ on a Theremin 👉 via: YouTube

Vaseline the Harps 🎶 ❓

You now your getting old when ya haf ta grease your jaw-harps & harmonicas with vaseline…

It Ain’t Easy Being Green – Especially During an Oil Spill: Spotlight on the Natural Resource Damage Assessment and Restoration Program


By Ruthie Aldridge

Blogger’s note: Ruthie Aldrich is presently a Washington Service Corps Americorps member serving with our staff in Lacey, Washington. Our dedicated interns and Americorps Service Members have some pretty cool experiences during their time with the Fish and Wildlife Service are often inspired to write about them. Be sure to catch up on the rest of the series by reading the other Intern Adventures and latest Stories of Service!

Photo: A female brown pelican being cleaned after the Deepwater Horizon Spill.
Photo credit: Tom MacKenzie/USFWS.

The 2010 Deepwater Horizon spill was one of the worst environmental disasters in modern history. The explosion of an Exxon oil tanker dumped an estimated 4.9 million barrels into the Gulf of Mexico, necessitating exhaustive cleanup efforts. Response to catastrophic spills such as these can be lengthy and complicated, which is why many different agencies are typically involved in the process, including the U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service (USFWS). In fact, several members from our Washington office participated in the cleanup of the Deepwater Horizon Spill, including Cindy Schexnider, an environmental contaminant specialist. “It was crazy, just crazy,” she recalls. “Not much sleep for sure.” The experiences of Deepwater Horizon highlight the importance of working proactively with oil companies before spills happen to plan and organize an effective response.

Although these large spills capture national attention, spills on a smaller scale also happen more often than you might think: the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) estimates that 70 spills on a smaller basis occur in the country every day. Washington state is at a high risk for spills, with figures showing that railroads ship more than 1 million barrels of crude oil across the state each week, and over 450 million barrels are moved annually. And indeed, spills on various scales do frequently occur in our own backyard, as illustrated on the Washington Department of Ecology’s spill maps.

When oil spills do happen in Washington state, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service staff are usually involved. Spills can have a detrimental impact on fish, wildlife, and other natural resources, which is why one of the top priorities during response is to clean, protect, and prevent additional harm to the environment. After the acute aftermath is taken care of, Service staff also assist in dealing with the longer-term consequences.

That’s where Natural Resource Damage Assessment and Restoration (NRDAR) comes in. The goal of NRDAR is to restore the services provided by natural resources (such as land, fish, wildlife, water, and other resources) to their baseline, pre-spill condition. To do so, trustees for public natural resources work together to assess and document any injuries on natural resources caused by contamination. Trustees are certain federal or state agencies and Native American tribes – collectively known as natural resource trustees – that evaluate the impacts of oil spills and plan and carry out restoration efforts. The U.S. Fish and Wildlife is considered a trustee.

Photo: USFWS biologists assessing beach conditions after the Deepwater Horizon spill. Comparing data against a baseline condition generated from surveys taken on clean beaches is one way scientists determined post-spill damage. Photos credit: Gary Peeples (left), USFWS (right).

Once trustees have determined the type and amount of restoration needed to compensate the public for injuries to their natural resources, they present a NRDAR claim to the party(ies) responsible for the spill. Trustees and responsible parties typically work together to to reach a settlement for the damages. When a settlement is reached, the trustees draft and implement a restoration plan and monitor the restoration projects to ensure their long-term success.

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